Thursday, 27 February 2020

Radha yadav wiki ,biography ,biodata
RADHA YADAV(INDIAN CRICKETER)

Meet 19 Years old Indian Cricketer Radha Yadav from Mumbai, Maharashtra. Radha Yadav was Born Prematurely on 21 April in the year 2000 in Kandivli, West Mumbai is a Right Handed Batswoman, and slow left-arm orthodox bowler plays for the India Women's national cricket team. On 13th of February Radha Yadav Played Her first women Twenty-20  for India Against South Africa. Read More About Radha Yadav


Radha Yadav (Indian Cricketer) Biography, Wiki


"Fortune Favours The Brave " Born in Vegetable vendor family Radha Yadav is now an Indian Cricketer who plays for India Women's National Cricket team, Due to Her Hard Work and Constant Support from her family. Born Prematurely in the Seventh Month in Kandivli, West Mumbai. In her Early life, She used to lives in a 225 sq. ft. house, which was behind her father's Vegetable Stall. Radha Yadav was Just 12, when her Coach Prafful Nayak, noticed her while playing Cricket in the Society's compound and has been training her.


RADHA YADAV BIODATA



RADHA YADAV BIODATA

RADHA YADAV BIODATA

FULL NAME - RADHA PRAKASH YADAV
NICKNAME - RADHA
D.O.B. - 21 APRIL 2000
BIRTHPLACE - KANDIVALI, WEST MUMBAI
NATIONALITY - INDIAN
RELIGION - HINDU
CASTE - N/A
PROFESSION - CRICKETER
ROLE - BOWLER
JERSEY NUMBER - 21


RADHA YADAV CRICKETER BIRTHPLACE AND AGE


•RADHA YADAV - 19 YEARS
•RADHA YADAV BIRTHPLACE - KANDIVALI, WEST MUMBAI


RADHA YADAV CRICKETER HEIGHT AND WEIGHT
Radha Yadav height , weight

RADHA YADAV HEIGHT & WEIGHT


• RADHA YADAV HEIGHT - TO BE UPDATED
• RADHA YADAV WEIGHT - TO BE UPDATED


RADHA YADAV CRICKETER SALARY AND NETWORTH
• RADHA YADAV SALARY - N/A.
RADHA YADAV NETWORTH - N/A.

RADHA YADAV FAMILY
FATHER'S NAME - OM PRAKASH YADAV.
MOTHERS NAME - N/A
FATHERS PROFESSION - VEGETABLE VENDOR

RADHA YADAV EDUCATION
VIDYA KUNJ SCHOOL

RADHA YADAV MARITAL STATUS 
UNMARRIED

RADHA YADAV CRICKETER HUSBAND
• UNMARRIED

RADHA YADAV CRICKET STATS
• BATTING - RIGHT-HAND
• BOWLING - SLOW LEFT ARM
• T-20 DEBUT - 13 FEBRUARY 2018 VS SOUTH AFRICA.
• MATCHES PLAYED - 32
• WICKETS - 43
• BEST BOWLING - 3/23
• CATCHES - 5

RADHA YADAV EARLY CAREER
• ON 13TH FEBRUARY 2018, SHE MADE HER WOMEN'S T-20 INTERNATIONAL CRICKET DEBUT FOR INDIA AGAINST SOUTH AFRICA.

RADHA YADAV AWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS
• Emerging Cricketer of the year .

ALSO READ SHAFALI VERMA BIOGRAPHY



shafali Verma wiki ,biography

SHAFALI VERMA WIKI BIOGRAPHY
Meet 16 Years old Indian Cricketer Shafali Verma, who plays for the India Women's national cricket team, She is Known for her Power-Hitting. Teenage Cricketer Shafali Verma first came into fame after breaking Sachin Tendulkar's 30 Years old record and she became the youngest Indian Cricketer to Score a Half Century in International cricket. Shafali Verma Became the internet Sensation after scoring 34-Ball 47 VS New Zealand at Junction Oval In Melbourne On Thursday. After the Sensational Innings Of Shafali Verma And the Spectacular Win of Team India Against New Zealand, India Became the first Team To Get a Ticket To the Semifinal. Read Full To Know More About Shafali Verma State, Height, Age, Stats


Shafali Verma Wiki Biography


Born on 28 January 2004, Shafali Verma is a 16 Years old Indian Cricketer, Plays for the India Women's National Cricket team .Shafali Verma Is Right Handed Batsman and Right-arm off-break bowler.

PERSONAL DETAILS
FULL NAME - SHAFALI VERMA
NICKNAME - SHAFALI
D.O.B.     -  28JANUARY ,2004 .
BIRTHPLACE - ROHTAK, HARYANA, INDIA
HOMETOWN - ROHTAK
PROFESSION - CRICKETER
NATIONALITY - INDIAN
RELIGION. - HINDU.
BATTING - RIGHT-HANDED
BOWLING - RIGHT-ARM off-break
MAJOR ROLE - BATSWOMAN
TEAM - INDIA WOMEN'S NATIONAL CRICKET TEAM
COACH - ASHWANI KUMAR


SHAFALI VERMA STATE , HOMETOWN

SHAFALI VERMA STATE , HOMETOWN 


SHAFALI VERMA STATE AND HOMETOWN

SHAFALI VERMA STATE - HARYANA
Shafali Verma Belongs to State  Haryana
SHAFALI VERMA HOMETOWN - ROHTAK



Shafali Verma Age , salary

SHAFALI VERMA WITH SACHIN TENDULKAR


SHAFALI VERMA AGE AND SALARY

•SHAFALI VERMA AGE - 16 YEARS

•SHAFALI VERMA SALARY - TO BE UPDATED



Shafali verma height , weight

Shafali Verma Youngest Player To Win the Player of the Match award in the T-20 WC


SHAFALI VERMA HEIGHT AND WEIGHT
•SHAFALI VERMA HEIGHT - 166 CM (Approx)
•SHAFALI VERMA WEIGHT - 50 KG (Approx)


SHAFALI VERMA FAMILY
•SHAFALI VERMA FATHER'S NAME - SANJEEV VERMA
•SHAFALI VERMA MOTHER'S NAME - N/A

SHAFALI VERMA CAREER
• Shafali Verma was named in India's Women's T-20 International in September 2019.
• On 24th September 2019 played her first World T-20 International match against South Africa.

SHAFALI VERMA INTERESTING FACTS

• Shafali Verma is the youngest Woman to play for India in a T-20 International match.
• Shafali Verma is the youngest woman for India To score a Half Century in International Cricket.

SHAFALI VERMA AWARDS
• Board Of Control For Cricket in India Awarded Central Contract.

SHAFALI VERMA STATS
• MATCHES - 17
• RUNS SCORED - 438
• BATTING AVERAGE 29.20
• TOP SCORE - 73
• HALF CENTURY - 2
• CENTURY - 0
• CATCHES - 4

READ
BASANT REGMI WIKI , BIO
RADHA YADAV BIOGRAPHY


Sunday, 16 February 2020



How does Fielding as a satirist project his moral vision in Joseph Andrews
Or
What do you learn about life in England in the 18th century from your study of joseph Andrews?
Or
Discuss Joseph andews as a social document?
Or what light does joseph Andrews throw on life in contemporary London
Or show that joseph Andrews despite its realistic frankness is truly moral in purpose?


Discuss Joseph andews as a social document?

Discuss ,Joseph Andrews as a social document English literature notes

Joseph Andrews as a social document

Henry Fielding is considered to be the pioneer of the realistic novel in England. Defoe’s novels grounded in reality are romantic in spirit. They present romance in the grab of reality. Richardson’s realism is rather narrow and his so-called psychological realism fails to come up to our standards of realism. It is only in Fielding's novel that we perceive the beginning of realistic fiction. Fielding based all his novel on experience. In the preface of Joseph Andrews, he says “I believe I have written, little more than I have seen “ and there is no doubt about the fact that he had seen much.

Joseph Andrews presents a very realistic picture of the life of the English countryside in the first half of the 18th century. The first thing that strikes us about this society is it extraordinary callousness even and selfishness, cruelty, mask of the member of this society are astounding selfish, insensible and hard-hearted. The stagecoach episode where joseph, half-killed and stripped naked by robbers is reluctantly rescued by the passengers in the stagecoach but receives no sympathy or comfort from any except the poor postilion fully brings out this callous temper. But this is not an isolated example. The novel abounds in instances of cold-blooded indifference to the miseries and misfortunes of others the surgeon indigently refuses to leave his bed to attend joseph just because he was a barefoot passenger and he has no means of paying his fee. Mrs. Tow-wouse forbids her husband to lend him as an old shirt to joseph. Parson Trulliber cannot afford even fourteen shillings to assist parson adam; on the contrary, he accuses him of being a vagabond.Peter Pounce thinks that the distresses of mask the poor people are only imaginary. Lawyer Scout believes that there are to have an act to hang or transport half of them.
Scout believes that there are too many poor and that"we opt to have an act to hang or transport half of them". It is indeed a rootlessly in human society than the novel brings into view, Apart from Adams and the Wilsons. Almost the only example of kindliness is supplied by very humble and not holly persons-the position, the chamber Maita's belly, the poor peddler. CLICK HERE Joseph Andrews as a Comic Epic In Prose or comic element.


Discuss Joseph andews as a social document?

The novel also depicts the wide gulf that seems to separate the high people from the low people. The distinction between these two groups is quite rigid. There is no friendly intermingling of the member of the two classes. Far from looking at each other as a brother in the Christian language, they scarcely regard each other of the same species. Lady Booby invariably refers to her country neighbors as "The brutes nor ", "the geodes", she grossly insult Adams or his insistence on publishing the banns of marriage and when she visits the personage, she does not condescend to acknowledge the low bows of Adams or the courtesy of his wife. Mrs. Slipslop though she is herself only awaiting women refuses to recognize Fanny.

These high-class people show utter disregard for the rights and interests of the poor people. Lady booby is not concerned whether or not servants get their wages in times. An autocratic squire, in his zeal for preserving game, kills all the dogs and confiscates all the guns in the neighborhood. when he goes hunting, he recklessly breaks down the farmers' hedges and rides over their gardens and cornfields. Another squire sends his people to abduct fanny for whom he has caught a passing fanny. A person of high class wielded great influence and could easily get the law twisted by shifting lawyers and judges to suits their purpose. Lady Booby's instructions do lawyers scout illustrate the corruption prevalent in the time. it shows the conspiracy of the rich classes and the professional against the poorer and weaker section of society. CLICK HERE Joseph Andrews as a picaresque novel

Joseph Andrews does not offer a very comprehensive view of city life. But whatever little we learn of its is enough to make us feel disguised. Scandal mongering happens to be the most favorite past time of fashionable ladies like Booby. Shrinking and gambling, swearing and frequent playhouses are the pet activities of the beaus and gallants. Beau Didapar is a typical product of the city and his very looks are so repulsive. We have another peep at the city life in the stories of Leonora and city life .Mr.wilson and there certainly is much of vanity and hypocrisy among the county people. This novel presents society so realistically that it may be called a valuable document of society.

However, if fielding has depicted such realistic pictures of his society it is not just because he wants to register his disgust with it. We can conclude by saying that fielding satirizes bad priests so that they may become good priests. he ridicules bad lawyers. Fielding's purpose in writing joseph Andrews is purely a moral one. In fact, a certain didactic note runs through all his writing, he is as much a moralistic as Richardson pretends to be; only his moral vision is very broad.

Thursday, 13 February 2020



Discuss Joseph Andrews as a “Comic” Epic in prose comment on the epic and comic element in Joseph Andrews


Comic epic in prose , comic elements in Joseph andrews notes estudent-corner

Joseph Andrews Comic epic in prose Notes


Henry Fielding wanted Joseph Andrews to be accepted as a comic epic in prose. He believed that a "Comic epic in prose" is quite a new genre and he was keen to explore its possibilities. He also tried to expound a well-defined theory about it. Homer had long ago produced a comic epic inverse of course which according to Aristotle bore some relation to comedy as the Illiad and the Odyssey did to tragedy. Combining the idea of prose epic and as an epic poem, Fielding evolves a new genre-comic epic in prose.

JOSEPH ANDREWS AS A COMIC EPIC IN PROSE

In his preface to Joseph Andrews, Fielding has differentiated his comic epic in prose from both a comic romance and a serious romance. He tells us that like an epic, his comic epic in prose embraces dignity and solemnity of purpose. The comic epic in prose chiefly promises a variety of characters involved in a very comprehensive action. The novelists' tone is light even frivolous and he gives mildly satirical, ironical exposition of the ridiculous. It is epical in scale and it is comic. Since it is highly down to art realistic, it is nor history for or it is not a superficial study of events nor it is a burlesque for a burlesque distort while it doesn't behind the frivolous tone of the novelist there is a strict moral responsibility which he shares with the writer of the serious epics.

Having discussed Fielding's theory about the comic epic in prose. We are now in a position to discuss how far Joseph Andrews conforms to this theory. A comic epic promises a variety of characters involved in a comprehensive action on an epical scale. Joseph Andrews does take us from the countryside to London and from there back to the countryside via an odyssey of the roadside. But we do not have any comprehensive picture of life either in the countryside or in London. At both the places, the action is confined to the personal involvements of a handful of characters with a force sprinkling of the countryside, rusticity or the genteel vices of London to give the narrative a peculiar coloring. The action along the roadside has a more comprehensive sweep. In the form of two digressions, the story of Leonara and the history of Mr.Wilson presents a miniature picture of city life as well. But everything is on a small scale in a way it can say that in Joseph Andrews  Fielding sketches in the outlines of his theory about the new genre which he was creating but elaborated it in TomJones.

EPIC AND COMIC ELEMENTS IN JOSEPH ANDREWS

In numerous other ways also Joseph Andrews tries to follow the principle of the epic structure. We can take an example of the famous battle between Joseph and Parson Adams, of the one side and the hounds on the other side. The Battle is described in terms of broad comedy but with the form of a serious conflict in which our sympathies are engaged, on one point Parson Adams flees. In other words, Fielding virtually states that he had adopted a great scene from the Illiad and the Aeneid to the purposes of his comic epic. The interesting thing, of course, is that though it is clear enough that he has the epic formula in mind he has so completely mastered the material that the form is but a perfect way of revealing and one is scarcely aware of the formula. Finally, Fielding makes use of the formula of discovery as outlined by Aristotle and made much of it in the works of the epic theorist. In the scene in which the mystery of Joseph and fanny parentage is been strengthened out, Fielding makes use of this sought of discovery. Joseph is recognized as the child of Mr. Wilson by the strawberry mark which he beers on his chest. At this point in the story Fielding professes specifically to Oedipus under similar circumstances they failed perhaps little less anxiety in this interval than Oedipus himself while his faith was being. The author revealed The author has the Greek sources of these practices clearly in mind. When he makes use of a very old device for bringing about the reversal of fortune.

Fielding takes the exposition of the "Ridiculous" as his special field in a comic epic. In this prefaces, he says that only true source of the ridiculous is an affectation on the pretense and this affectation arises from one of two causes -vanity or hypocrisy Fielding observes it is from the discovery of affectation, striking the reader with surprise and pleasure, that the ridiculous emerges. Thus the hypocrisy provides a stranges surprise than vanity and is more ridiculous or we might say funnies.

There is a good deal of vanity and hypocrisy expose in joseph Andrews even Joseph Andrews is not free from vanity. A very interesting vanity exists in him about the great value of his sermons. One stage in the novel, Mr. Wilson gives a strong dissertation on the vanity. There is similar comedy scattered everywhere in the book. The first important scene in the novel the seduction scene is a fine example of hypocrisy. There is both hypocrisy and vanity. parson Barnabus, including the surgeon, lawyer and the justice of the piece are either vain or hypocritical and they all contribute the comedy in Joseph Andrews.

Fielding called his novel an epic also on account of the very high notion he had of the purpose of the novel. He never thought that a novel was merely a source of entitlement he considered in a very serious form of literature embodied with at serious a moral purpose as an epic. Joseph Andrews does manage to be successful to attract on Hypocrisy and vanity. In prose it is not merely a tag to fill out a phrase "Comic epic in prose" but it was a well-known belief that poetry is appropriate to the expression of the more elevated thoughts and the celebration of great actions, as a realist attempting a comic epic, he found prose with comic turn given to its phrase a very suitable medium for himself.

Thus in Joseph Andrews, fielding applies all the rules of the comic epic. Thornbury points out that we are not conscious at the rule as we are in the work of the French writers of epics in the 17th century but these arise from the fact fielding is a great artist." what fielding was attempting was an entirely new species of literature. In his language and he was right to claim this kind of writing I do not remember to have seen hitherto attempted to our language.

ALSO, READ

Joseph Andrews as a picaresque novel, the picaresque tradition of Joseph Andrews


Wednesday, 22 January 2020

Gita Gopinath Wiki, Biography, Salary, Husband, Religion, Education -IMF Chief Economist

Content
  • What is the International Monetary Fund?
  • Gita Gopinath
  •  Wiki, Biography
  •  Early life and Education
  •  Holding of Offices
  • Awards and Honours

Gita Gopinath Wiki, Biography, Salary, Husband, Religion , Education -IMF Chief Economist
 Gita Gopinath photos


Born on 8th December 1971 in Kolkata, India Gita Gopinath is the Chief Economist of the International Monetary Fund, She was appointed as Chief Economist of the International Monetary Fund in October 2018 and assumed the office of IMF on 1 January 2019. Along with Chief Economist of the international organization, she is also a co-director of the International finance and macroeconomics program at the national bureau of economic research. Moreover, she has worked as the Economic Adviser to the Chief Minister of Kerela (Pinarayi Vijayan). Read Further Gita Gopinath Economist, Wiki, Biography, Salary, Husband Religion.

What Is the International Monetary Fund?

International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund or IMF formed in 1944 at the Bretton woods Conference is an international organization that works to support global monetary cooperation, to secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, sustainable economic growth promoter high employment globally depending on world bank. Read More Gita Gopinath IMF chief Economist, Husband,


Gita Gopinath wiki biography ,salary
IMF CHIEF ECONOMIST



Gita Gopinath wiki Biography


Personal Details
•Full name - Gita Gopinath
•Nickname - Gita
•Born  - 8th December 1971
•Birthplace - Kolkata, India
•Nationality - Indian-American
•Occupation - Chief Economist of IMF
•Religion - Hinduism

Gita Gopinath Family
Gita Gopinath Father's name
 • T.V. Gopinath

 Gita Gopinath Mother's name

 • VC Vijay Lakshmi

How old is Gita Gopinath/Gita Gopinath Age
Gita Gopinath Age - 47 years Old


Gita Gopinath Net worth & Salary

Net worth - $800,000 USD
Salary - Not known.

Gita Gopinath Husband and Kids
Iqbal Singh Dhaliwal is the husband of Gita Gopinath, he was born in the Sikh family in Amritsar, He was the classmate of Gita at the Delhi School of Economics.


Gita Gopinath Husband Religion

Sikh

Gita Gopinath kids
Rohil.

Gita Gopinath Height & Weight
Height - 5.6 Inchs (167 cm)
Weight - 60kgs (approx)


Gita Gopinath Early Life  and Education

Born on December 8, 1971, in Kolkata, during the Bangladesh war, Gita Gopinath is the younger daughter of TV Gopalan and VC Vijaylakshmi residence of Mysuru, Her mother V.C Vijaylakshmi ran a very popular playhouse from last 35 years.


Her parents are from Kerala, Her father  TV Gopinath is related to the late A.K Gopalan, an Indian communist leader, and her mother is from the Vediyara Chandrothu family.



Gita Gopinath Education

•  Schooling at Normal Convent school in Mysore

• Bachelor of Arts from Lady Shri Ram College for women in 1992 (Delhi University)
•  M.A in Economics from Delhi School of Economics (Delhi University).
•  Ph.D. degree at Princeton University.


Gita Gopinath Holding of Offices

• Gita Gopinath is the John Zwaanstra professor of International Studies, the professorship which is established on behalf of John Zwaanstra.

• Gita Gopinath was appointed Chief Economist of the IMF in October 2018 and assumed her office on 1 January 2019.
• She is is Co-director of the International Finance and macroeconomics program at the National Bureau of economic research.
• Economic adviser to the Chief Minister of Kerela.

Gita Gopinath Awards and Honours

• In the year 2019 awarded Pravasi Bharatiya Samman, the highest honor for a person of Indian origin, by the President of India.

• Named as one of the Top 25 economists under 45 by the IMF in the year 2014 .
• In the year chosen as a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum.

READ BIOGRAPHY OF
PRITI PATEL




Sunday, 19 January 2020


SYMBOLISM IN DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS

CONTENT

  1. SYMBOLISM MEANING
  2. THE FARM IT'S SYMBOLIC SIGNIFICANCE
  3. THE SYMBOLIC CHARACTERS 
  4. THE WALL IT'S SYMBOLIC SIGNIFICANCE
  5. BIBLICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  6. DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS BIBLICAL ALLUSION
  7. DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS MYTHOLOGICAL ALLUSIONS

Desire under the elms symbolism notes , Biblical , Mythological allusions
SYMBOLISM IN DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS


SYMBOLISM MEANING

Symbolism may be defined as the use of any parts of a play, character, incident setting, to suggest an idea not necessary for the surface story. It is by the use of symbolism that a writer conveys much more that can be ordinarily conveyed. In this way, he imparts depth and richness and universalizes his theme. It is in this way the abstract is, made concrete and the dark is illuminated.

Eugene O'Neill has made extensive use of symbolism in Desire under the elms, the setting is symbolic. We are told “Two enormous Elms are on each side of the house they bend their trailing branches down over the root, but it is not merely nature and particular stony farmland that is thus symbolized, the maternal trees represent also the secret dominance of the female in the action: the dead second wife of the Ephraim Cabot, worked to Exhaustion by her husband, is yet powerful in the life of her son Eben; Ephraim third wife Abbie is strong enough to destroy Ephraim and Eben and the child that is born to Eben and herself. Thus the elms symbolize mother image whose presence is felt throughout the play. They symbolize Eben’s mother fixation and the role of the mother mistress which Abbie has to play towards Eben. In the end, the elms still, stoop in their maternal embrace of the farm but there is no woman there to give them a human and tolerable significance. READ FURTHERDesire under the elms symbolism notes


The farm: it's Symbolic Significance

The farm and the farmhouse are symbolic of emotional and material security which is desired by all, in the play, all the characters require security and stability in their lives and so all desire to possess it.

Old Cabot has himself worked hard and has also made his sons and wife work hard so that the farm may prosper, and he may acquire security and prestige as its possessor. Abbie desires it, as it would give her security against want and drudgery which have been her lot in life. Eben desires it, for by possessing it he would not only enjoys security but would also avenge his mother. The farm also symbolizes the life-denying sterility of puritan ideals. For it warps and twists the lives of those who are slaves to it.

The symbolic characters

The characters too are equally symbolic, old Ephraim Cabot, for Ex- symbolizes the patriarch who ruled. The conflict between him and his three grown-up sons in symbolic of the father-son conflict in primitive societies. In those early days, the growing sons were banished by his father as they grew jealous and rebellious and craved for the fights and privileges enjoyed by him. Often they wanted to that peter, Simeon and Eben have relations with the mistress of their father, and later on, Eben enjoys intimate relations with Abbie. Equally symbolic is their desire to be the heir of their father in everything and the departure of Simeon and peter for California is symbolic of the exile of the sons from the primal horde.


The wall; its symbolic significance

In part II, Scene ii we see both the bedroom of the Abbie and Ephraim and the bedroom of Eben. The wall between the two-bedroom is symbolic of the wall of selfhood which separates and divides one character from another. The wall is symbolic of separateness and therefore, it is in the fitness of things that it should begin to crumble, dissolve and become paper-thin as Abbie and even begins to year passionately for each other and begin to come closer to each other. The melting away of the wall is symbolic of the merging and fusion of their two selves which is now taking place. In this way, their separateness, as well as their close association is well symbolized.

Biblical and Mythological Significance
Edgar F.Racey traces the Biblical and Mythological symbolism in the play. Peter in the play, represents the nature of the rock and he is the first who picks up a rock and he is the first who picks up a rock to cast it at his father's house. Simeon also symbolizes cruelty and stands for the proverb, "An eye for an eye". and in revenge on his tyrannical father, he threatens his new wife. one recalls Jacob's blessing of his sons.

Ephraim Cabot is harshness incarnate and he symbolizes the rocky nature and the spirit of retaliation."He is Ephraim, the progenitor of the tribes of Israel, the archetypal patriarch. His name may be an underlying source of irony by the end of the play, and it is significant that his "fruitfulness" is the greatest source of his hubris, "He is isolated figure 'godlike', hard like a god, even is "Ebenezer"-"store of hope". He hopes to possess the farm and avenge the wrongs done to his mother, then by this biblical symbolism O'Neil has deepened his meaning and universalized his theme.

A similar depth and generality have been imparted by the symbolic use of the Hippolytus-Phaedra-thesis myth. In the Greek story, the father returns with his new wife, who is immediately attracted by her step-son. In the play, the old Cabot is the father, Abbie is the new wife, and she is sexually attracted by Eben, her step-son. Like the step-son in the greek story, Eben, too, responds to the advance of his step-mother.

Like Hippolytus, Eben muses constantly on his mother, who was"Foreign" Thus by using the Greek myth as a symbol, the dramatist has imparted a broad and universal significance to the play. In this way, the insert-motive has been given a mythological background.

CLICK HERE FOR

Desire under the elms Novel Theme, Significance, technique of Characterisation Notes




Friday, 17 January 2020



Title of the play, Desire under the elms, its aptness? desire as the theme of the play?

CONTENT
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE TITLE
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ELMS
  • TECHNIQUE OF CHARACTERISATION
  • CHARACTERS
  1. EPHRAIM CABOT
  2. ABBIE PUTNAM
  3. EBEN CABOT

The title of a play should be apt and suggestive, like the signboard of a shop. It should indicate the substance of the play. It should give an idea of its theme from
the title itself one should be able to guess what the play is about. The title of the present play is apt and appropriate for it suggests its theme.


Desire under the elms notes ,significance ,characters

DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS NOVEL NOTES



SIGNIFICANCE OF TITLE

The theme of the play is a variation of the first word of the title 'Desire' every character in the play desires something on the other. As the play opens we are introduced to the three Sons of Ephraim Cabot and Peter, are fed up with their life on the stony farm their father has made them over-work and now they desire freedom from drudgery on their father's farm. They year for the west, for California, where they would have freedom from work, and where they would be able to earn enough gold quite easily. Their 'Desire' is for gold and freedom and they leave the farm and go off to the west as soon as their father returns home with his third wife, Abbie Putnam.

Eben, the youngest son of Ephraim, passionately 'Desire' to possess the farm, for he believes that the farm belongs to his dead mother, and his father had unlawfully stolen it from her. Therefore, he desires the farm more than anything else in the world. It is to get the farm that he steals the concealed money of his father, and purchases with it the shares of his two brothers as they go off to California. Besides the farm, he desires to have revenge on his father for the wrongs, he has done to his dead 'Mother'. He overworked her, stole the farm which rightfully belonged to her, and killed her, stole the farm which rightfully belonged to her, and killed her by his callous unsympathetic Behaviour. Eben, therefore yearns for revenge and feels that his mother's spirit would get no peace till her wrongs are avenged. He, therefore, seduces and makes Love to Abbie Putnam.

Abbie Putnam, the young wife of Ephraim Cabot desires a home and security. She has led a hard life and has always worked in the homes of others. Her one yearning in life has been to have a home of her own, and to work on her own but because she desired the home and the security which the marriage would enable her to enjoy. She covets the farm and desire, that it should be her farm. She 'desires that old Cabot should leave it to her. She also 'desires'Eben from the very beginning and casts lustful glances on him even what they meet for the first time. As old Cabot would leave the farm not to her, but to one of his own blood, she proceeds cold-bloodily to seduce Eben. She would have a son by him and thus kill two birds with one stone. She 'Desire' him passionately, intensely and her 'desires' for him outweigh her 'Desire' for the farm.

He 'Desires' the farm so much that, he would take it with himself to the other world if he could since he cannot do so, he desires to leave it to one of his own blood and not Abbie, who is his wife but not of his blood. Therefore, he 'Desires' a son who may inherit the farm and then the farm would really belong to him after his death. Besides the farm, old Cabot desires the warmth of human company. He feels lonesome and seeks company. He cannot get this companionship with his sons whom he hates because they are soft and who hate him because he has overworked them. It is his 'Desire' for a company that takes him to the village prostitute and then to seek and marry Abbie Putnam. But still, he feels lonely and chilly. He 'Desires' warmth but feels chilly and intuitively known that something is wrong with the house.

Therefore, he leaves his bedroom and goes to the barn where he finds warmth and companionship in the company of the cows. Thus the first word of the title 'Desire' is suggestive of the theme of the play.


SIGNIFICANCE OF ELMS

The other word 'Elms' in the title is equally apt and suggestive, this drama of action and interaction of passionate desires takes place in a house over which grow, two elms. But it is not merely nature and particular stony farmland, that is this symbolized. The maternal trees represent also the secret dominance of the female in the action: the dead second wife of Ephraim Cabot, worked to exhaustion by her husband, is yet powerful in the life of her son Eben; Ephraim's third wife.
Abbie is strong enough to destroy Ephraim and Eben and the child that is born to Eben and herself. In the end, the elms still stop in their maternal Embrene of the farm but there are no women there to give them a human and tolerable significance. Old Cabot had desired warmth and company, but now it is going to be more 'lonesome' still' for him on the farm, without his sons, and without his woman.


DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS TECHNIQUE OF CHARACTERISATION

The successful characterization is the measure of dramatist greatness and O'NEIL is eminently successful in this respect. In Desire Under the Elms, he has used conventional realistic techniques of characterization.
First, the external personality of the different characters has been vividly sketched so that the various personage acquire a clear-cut firm outline. The dramatist himself tells us a lot about their respective characters. Thus, as the action proceeds, the personage reveals different facets of their personalities through interaction with other characters through their own words, asides and soliloquies, and through their action. They are full-bodied, three-dimensional figures. The numbers of characters are strictly limited and thus there is great pain in concentration and effectiveness, there are only five characters of which two, Simon and peter appear only in the first introductory past. They are a typical country that departs for California, teasing and insulting old Cabot their father as soon as he returns home with his third wife. The stage is thus left free for concentration on the three principal characters, Ephraim Cabot, Abbie Putnam, and Eben.
A brief consideration of their character would throw into sharp relief the salient features of Neil's art of Characterisation.


CHARACTERS OF THE PLAY

      1)EPHRAIM CABOT

The personality of old Cabot has been graphically sketched by the dramatist.

CABOT” is seventy-five tall and giant with great concentrated power. His face is as hard as if it were Hewn out of a boulder, yet there is a weakness in it, a pretty pride in its own narrow strength. His eyes are small, close together, blinking continually in the effort to focus on objects.

“Ephraim is a monster of Egoism of possessiveness”. He is a cheap-jack version of the God of the Old Testament whom he quotes so often.

The play is his tragedy as much as it is the “Lovers”. In the end he is quite alone on the farm. He has built his farm, stone by stone, and he has wanted to keep its personal possession through leaving it to an heir of his body. But Simeon and Peter have already gone to California. Ephraim is indeed contrasted favorably with the sniggering neighbor who came to celebrate the birth of Abbie’s child and O’Neil makes us respect the strength of the body and the personality which Ephraim keeps into his 76 years. Only Abbie could master him,Eben may be rebellious but he is burry by his father’s side and Abbie finally loses her power through her deeper involvement with Eben. In the end, the Elms still stoop in their maternal embrace of the farm. But there is no woman there to give them a human and tolerable significance. Deeply religious, Ephraim is fond of quoting in Bible, relishing it along with his drink and with his woman and his farm, finding in it a sanction for his high handed domination. Finally, he reconciles himself to loneliness by equating himself with God.

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DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS SYMBOLISM

He is an eccentric an almost endearing old miser, who has an apt biblical quotation for every misdeed he performs, Historically, He is based on the small New England Farmer of almost absolute individualism and many eccentricities Cabot is heightened and dramatical embodiment. The essence of his character is not dryness and narrowness. On the contrary, he is complex and expensive. 

A note of pathos is introduced into his character by his love of cows. Cabot is a deeply religious man, hard relentless and unforgiving as the old testament prophets. He is one of O’NEIL’S major creation and his character illustrates the life-denying sterility of the puritan ideal.

2)ABBIE PUTNAM

Abbie Putnam, the third wife of Ephraim Cabot is 35, full of vitality. Her round face is pretty but marred by its rather gross sensuality. There are strength and obstinacy in her jaw, a hard destination in her eyes and about her whole personality the same unsettled, untamed, desperate quality which is so apparent in Eben.

The most striking quality in the character of Abbie lies in the complexity of her inner life in the three standard webs of desire that seizes her. She wishes to establish good relations with Eben, for she wants to dominate the household and not to risk losing the farm when Euphraim dies but she has a further motive for attempting to case Eben of his resentment that she has taken his mother’s place.

For the sake of her love for Eben, Abbie is prepared to sacrifice her child and this action of her shocks our susceptibilities but in the play, it has its own importance. In this way the knot is untied, all secrecy is banished and all comfort goes, Abbie’s complex character is suddenly resolved into that of a woman who loves Eben.

In her love, Abbie forgets to be a mother, forgets her wish for a secure mistress-ship of the farmhouse and sacrifices everything she possesses for her love, such sacrifice exalts her love, which would otherwise have been mere lust. Abbie is one of those rounded figures who grow under the stress of circumstances. As the auction proceeds, her character undergoes a profound change, she began with lust, greed, and intrigue. Even though we know that she has suffered a lot in life and that the desire for a home and securities natural for her, we are inclined to condemn her as lustful, greedy and intriguing.

By the end of the play, the grosser elements have been purged away and she emerges as a woman in love who would sacrifice anything to gain her love. The grandeur and intensity of her passion exact and uplifts her, even though she is guilty of the crime of child murder.


3)EBEN CABOT

Eben Cabot is a youngmen of 25, tall and sinewy “His face is well-formed”, good looking, but its expression is resentful and defensive. His defiant dark eye reminds one of a wild animal in captivity. Each day is a cage in which he finds himself trapped, but inwardly unsubdued, There is a fierce repressed vitality about him.

The desire for the farm which he thinks lawfully belonged to his mother and now becomes to him as her heir, and desire for revenge are the two factors that determine his character. He has a grudge against his father because he knows that he overworked his mother like a slave and this sent her to death.

He, therefore, would like to avenge her wrongs, he would very much like to possess the farms which he thinks lawfully as his own. In order to possess the farm, he steals the money hidden by his father and purchases the shares of his two brothers as they go off to California. This he feels is a step towards his revenge and towards the possession of the farm. He constantly feels her spirit hovering restlessly over the house and watching over him.

This mother fixation or mother's love determines his reaction to the advances of Abbie Putnam, his stepmother, he is sexually attracted to her from the very beginning, but repulse her advances and regards her with hostility, for she has come between him and the farm. Ultimately he yields to her seductions only because he realizes that would be suitable revenge for the wrongs done to her mother. Eben feels that his acceptance of the love of Abbie has pleased his mother and her soul would henceforth rest in peace in her grave.


He is also a rounded figure, one who changes and grows under the stress of circumstances. His sacrifice uplifts and dignified him. It brings out the inherent nobility of his soul. 

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