Sunday, 15 September 2019

Ynes Mexia Wiki , Biography ,Cause of death , Age ,Net Worth, Husband .

Today on 15 September 2019 ,Sunday  Google Doodle Celebrates Mexican-American Botanist and explorer  Ynes Mexia in Honor of Hispanic Heritage Month .Today in this post We will know Why Google Doodle is celebrating Ynes Mexia on 15 September.


Ynes Mexia Wiki , Biography ,Cause of death , Age ,Net Worth, Husband

YNES MEXIA WIKI


Ynes Mexia was popularly known for her collection of Novel plant specimens from areas of Mexico and South America  , Moreover she was the most skilled plant collector of her time.
On this day in 1925 , Mexia was then 55 years old , started her first plant collection trip to Sinaloa ,Mexico in search of rare botanical species ,under the tutorship of Roxanna Ferris ,a Botanist of Stanford University . During this trip she fell off a cliff and was injured  ,she despite falling off a cliff and risking her life and limb ,Mexia brought 500 specimens , including several new Species . "Mimosa Mexiae" was the first species which was discovered on this excursion and which was named after Mexia . Read Further Ynes Mexia Wiki , Biography ,Age ,Net worth , Cause of death ,Google Doodle Celebrates Ynes Mexia .

Ynes Enriquetta Julietta Mexia popularly known as Ynes Mexia was born on May 24 ,1870 in Washington D.C to Enrique Mexia and Sarah Wilmer . Mexia was a Mexican-American Botanist known for her collection of Novel Plant . "Asteraceae" is the new Genus which was Discovered by Mexia .

Ynes Mexia Wiki Biography


Born - May 24 ,1870
Birth place - Washington D.C.
Nick name - Ynes Mexia
Full Name - Ynes Enriquetta Julietta Mexia
Nationality- American
Citizenship - Mexico , United States
Awards - Life member of the California academy of sciences.
Profession- Botanist


Ynes Mexia Cause of death 


She died on July 12 in the year 1938 , in Berkeley from Lung Cancer after falling I'll on a collecting trip to Mexico .

Ynes Mexia Family 

Father's Name - Enrique Mexia ,
Mother's Name - Sarah Wilmer


Ynes Mexia Husband

Mexia was Married to Spanish German Merchant Herman De Laue in the year 1897 but soon the marriage ended after the death of her husband in the year 1904.
Mexia second husband was 16 years Her junior ,D.Augustin Reygados ,the second marriage  did not last long and they got divorced in 1908.

Ynes Mexia Age and Net worth

Ynes Mexia Age - aged (68)
Ynes Mexia Net worth- Not known.

Ynes Mexia Education

• Mexia received her early education at the age of 15 years at Saint Joseph's academy, Maryland.
• Mexia received her primary education in private schools in Philadelphia and Ontario, Canada.
• She matriculated at the University of California, Berkeley.

However,She never Received a degree .

Ynes Mexia career 

• She discovered and brought 500 specimens including several new Species of which the first species was named after her ,Mimosa Mexiae.
• After her trip to Mexico she travelled over the next 12 years to the places like Argentina, Chile , Brazil , Peru , etc . Throughput her career she has Discovered 150000 specimens.


Ynes Mexia Awards Recognition and Discoveries

• Life member of the California Academy of sciences.
• Ynes Mexia discovered a new Genus of Asteraceae .
• Mimosa Mexiae was the first species to be named after her ,which was discovered on her excursion to Mexico .
• Mexia is one of the most collectors of botanical Specimen in History.
• Mexia has Gathered 150000 specimens throughout her career.









Saturday, 14 September 2019

MONOPHTHONG OR PURE VOWEL

A Monophthong is a pure vowel sound one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation .

A VOWEL SOUND WHOSE QUALITY DOES NOT CHANGE OVER THE DURATION OF THE VOWEL IS CALLED A PURE VOWEL .

Pure vowels refer to the vowels that show no noticeable change of quality during their articulation. These sounds will be described here by using the following
three term labels -


(i) Part of the tongue raised,
(ii) The height of the that part of the tongue and
(iii) The position of the lips .



Monophthong or Pure Vowel Chart ,Definition ,Types ,with example ,Phonetics Notes

MONOPHTHONG OR PURE VOWEL

what is a diphthong types and illustration?


The following are the 12 pure vowels described in terms of the manners of articulation .


Monophthong or Pure Vowel Chart ,Definition ,Types ,with example ,Phonetics Notes

MONOPHTHONG OR PURE VOWEL CHART


(1)   /i:/

Before explaining the sound, note the following // is not the small letter 'i', of the alphabet .It is a symbol representing a sound. So don't confuse 
the phonemic symbols with letters of the alphabet .In order to differentiate them from letters,the symbols // are given.And the two dots in a symbol represent 
length,we will understand that it is a long vowel .

In order to produce this sound ,you raise the front of the tongue in the direction of the hard palate to an almost close position.The lips are spread and 
the tongue is tense when the sound is produced ,it is a long vowel produced with the lips in an unrounded position. Thus ,it is a front ,close ,unrounded vowels.
The vowel occurs at the initial ,medial and final position in words.

FOR EXAMPLE 
INITIAL : EAT, EASE
MEDIAL  : MEAT, LEAF
FINAL   : TEA , SEA

(2)  /I/

In order to produce this sound ,you raise the centre of the tongue in the direction of the hard palate to a position between close and half close with the lips
loosely spread it is a front,unrounded vowels between close and half close. it occurs initially ,medially and finally in a word.

FOR EXAMPLE -

INITIAL : INN , INCH
MEDIAL  : BIT, RICH
FINAL   : CITY,LADY

(3)   /e/

While articulating this sound,you raise the front of the tongue between half close and half open position with the lips loosely spread,It is a front unrounded
vowels between half close and half openpositions. The vowel occurs only initially and medially ina word ,

FOR EXAMPLE

INITIAL : ANY,END
MEDIAL  : MANY,HEAD

FOR MORE PHONETICS NOTES CLICK HERE

(4)  /a:/

While articulating this sound , the mouth is slightly more open than for // . The front of the tongue is raised just below the half open position with the lips 
neutral ;it is a front unrounded vowel just below the half open position.

FOR EXAMPLE

INITIAL - APPLE , AND
MEDIAL - HAND , FAN

(5)  /^/

While articulating this vowel you raised the centre of the tongue to a position between open and half open with the lips neutral.It is a central unrounded 
vowel between open and half open position occuring onlyinitially and medially in a word.

FOR EXAMPLE -
INITIAL - UP, UTTER,
MEDIAL  - CUP , HUT

(6) /ae/

While articulating this sound , the back of the tongue is in the fully open position while the lips are neutral ; it is a back , open ,unrounded vowel occurimg
,initially ,medially and finally in a word.

FOR EXAMPLE -
INITIAL - ASK, AUNT
MEDIAL - CAR, PASS
FINALLY - FAR , BAR (FINAL 'r' is not pronounced .

(7) /o'/

while articulating this vowel , the back of the tongue is raised in the direction of the soft palate and it is in a fully opens position.

the lips are rounded . Hence it is a back , open rounded, vowel occuring initially and medially in a word .

FOR EXAMPLE - 
INITIAL - ODD,OFF
MEDIAL - COT,ROCK

(8) /):/

While articulating this vowel the back of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate to a height between half close and half open position .with lips rounded ,it is a back
rounded vowel between half close and half open position occuring in all three position.

FOR EXAMLPE -
INITIAL - ALL,OUGHT
MEDIAL - COURT , BOARD 
FINAL - DOOR , BONE 

(9) /u /

While articulating this sound the tongue moves to a position between close and half close with the lips loosely spread, it is a centralized back vowel between close and 
half close position occuring only medially and finally in a word .

FOR EXAMPLE- 

MEDIAL - BOOK,LOOK
FINAL - TO,YOU

(10) /u:/

While articulating this vowel , you raise the back of the tongue in the direction of the soft palate almost to a close position with the lips closely rounded. it is a back ,
close , rounded vowel occuring in all three positions.

FOR EXAMPLE - 
INITIAL - OOZE
MEDIAL - FOOL , SOON
FINAL - TWO , SHOE

(11)  /3: /

While articulating this vowel you raised the central of the tongue in the direction of the roof of the mouth where the hard and soft palate meet to a position between half close and half open 
The lips are neutral . This is a central unrounded vowel between half close and half open position and occurs in all positions .

FOR EXAMPLE -

INITIAL - EARN , EARTH
MEDIAL - LEARN , CURL
FINAL -FUR, SIR

(12)  /0/

while articulating this sound the centre of the tongue is raised to position between half close and half open position. The lips are neutral , non-final ,this vowel
is a central , unrounded vowel between half close and half open position whereas in word final position , it is a central ,half open , unrounded vowel, it occurs in all position .

FOR EXAMPLE -
INITIAL - ABOUT, ABOVE 
MEDIAL - PURPOSE , CIRCUS
FINAL - FATHER , MOTHER. 




















Sunday, 8 September 2019

A.S Kiran Kumar , Wiki , Biography , Salary , Caste , Religion , Education , Family , ISRO 

A.S Kiran Kumar Biography
Born on the 22nd of October in the year 1952 Aluru Seelin Kiran Kumar popularly known as A.S Kiran Kumar is one of the greatest indian scientists and the former chairperson of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).He was the chairperson of Indian Space Research Organization from 14 January 2015 , to 14 January 2018 . After the successful term of A.S Kiran Kumar as the chairperson of the Indian Space Research Organization he was Succeeded by Dr. K.Sivan ,the present chairperson of the Indian Space Research Organization .READ FURTHER A.S KIRAN KUMAR WIKI ,BIOGRAPHY



A.S Kiran Kumar , Wiki , Biography , Salary , Caste , Religion , Education , Family , ISRO

A.S KIRAN KUMAR , WIKI ,BIOGRAPHY



Recently, in the month of May A.S Kiran Kumar was awarded France's highest civilian award for his Invaluable contribution to the development of India and also for encouraging the historic and ambitious space cooperation between India and France .Apart from this, he was also awarded many other prestigious awards ,in the year 2014 , He was conferred with  Padma Shri India's fourth highest civilian award , for his tremendous and remarkable contribution to the fields of Science and Technology .READ MORE A.S KIRAN KUMAR SALARY ,CASTE ,FAMILY AND EDUCATION

READ VIKRAM SARABHAI BIOGRAPHY

A.S Kiran Kumar Wiki, Biography
Born - 22nd October 1952 ,
Birth place - Karnataka ,India 
Nick Name - A.S Kiran Kumar
Full Name - Aluru Seelin Kiran Kumar 
Nationality - Indian 
Profession - Scientist
Awards - Padma Shri & France's Highest civilian award
Popular at - Ex-Chairman Of ISRO 
Holds Office - 14 january 2015 - 14 January 2018.
Religion - Hindu

A.S Kiran Kumar Age and Caste
A.S Kiran Kumar Age - 66 years
A.S Kiran Kumar Caste - Not known

A.S KIRAN KUMAR FAMILY 

NOT KNOWN

A.S Kiran Kumar Wife and Children
Not Known

A.S Kiran Kumar Height and Weight
HEIGHT -5.4INCH (Approx)
Weight - 70kg (aapprox)

A.S Kiran Kumar Salary and Net Worth
A.S Kiran Kumar Salary - 3lacs (approx)



A.S Kiran Kumar Education 
• Completed B.sc. (Physics honours ) from National College , Bangalore in the year 1971.
• Completed M.sc (Electronics) from Central College , Bangalore University in the year 1973 ,
• Completed M.Tech (Physical Engineering)from Indian Institute of Science Bangalore,1975.

Early Life and Career 
Born on 22nd October 1952 , to a Hindu Family in Hassan District of Karnataka,India. A.S Kiran Kumar After completion of his B.sc , M.sc and M.tech ,in the year 1975, He started his career , joining the Space Application Centre , in Ahmedabad .

A.S Kiran Kumar Scientific Contribution
A.S Kiran Kumar is popular for his Invaluable contribution for the scientific development of India , his many contributions to the Indian Space programmes is tremendous . Programmes and project like Bhaskara TV and also mission like Chandrayaan -1 and Mangalyaan he played a significant role and also contributed a lot , Moreover the design and development of the electro-optical image sensors which was used in India's first remote sensing satellite is credited to him.

Other points of his contribution to the Scientific development
• The Optical image sensors which was used in Bhaskara in the year 1979 as well as the ocean colour instruments which are used in weather Forecasting, Mappings and telecommunication are credited to him.
• Another important contribution of A.S Kiran Kumar is the design and development of the imaging instrument for projects such as INSAT-3, Micro Satellite and Cartosat .
• The Terrain Mapping camera and Hyperspectral imager payloads of Chandrayaan -1 project is also credited to him .

Awards And Recognition 
Apart from France's Highest civilian award and the India's  fourth highest award , A.S Kiran Kumar has been awarded many awards  , Few of them are mentioned below -

• Remote Sensing Award in the year 1994 , 
• Vasvik , Award in the year 1988 ,
• Astronautical society of India award in the year 2001 , 
• In the year 2006 he was awarded Individual service award by the Indian Space Research Organization.
• ISRO performance award by the Indian Space Research Organization, and many more .

A.S KIRAN KUMAR WIKI,BIOGRAPHY,AGE,SALARY,FAMILY,EDUCATION IS ALL WE DISCUSSED TODAY IN THIS POST.







Friday, 6 September 2019

Q. Analyse the character of huckleberry Finn ?
OR
Q. Huckleberry Finn Characters

OR

Q. In the character of Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain has analysed to present still free , the natural being not yet Moulded and ruined by an environment that 
seeks to civilize him ?? Discuss?



Analyse the character of huckleberry Finn  OR Huckleberry Finn Characters


CHARACTER OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN NOTES


HUCKLEBERRY FINN CHARACTER

Huckleberry Finn plays an important role in the novel, the adventure of Huckleberry Finn .He is so important a character in the novel that the novel is entitled  after his name .He is the central figure of the novel. He is a child hero, and a successful child hero in the novel. All the events and characters are related  to him. He is present in the whole novel .After reading this novel we find the following traits in his nature .

(1) Autobiographical Figure 

it is very remarkable that Huckleberry Finn is an autobiographical figure in the novel . He is drawn from the real life.He is the mouthpiece of the writer himself.
Mark Twain has chosen Him for is narrator . In many ways , Huck is a safe reporter. The novel is satirical.The writer has attacked the then existing cruelty and cheating in the society.
Many dialogue between Jim and Huck saw the critical comments of the author himself on the vices of the people. Huck run away from the modern civilized society and lives 
a free life on the surface of the river .

The writer is tired of the defective society and wants to run away from it and live freely. The writer had experienced the cruelty , cheating , sorrow and misery in various 
strata of society and in various countries he had to express his views on them and he has chosen Huck as his mouthpiece for his purpose .

NOTES ON HUCKLEBERRY FINN AS A PICARESQUE NOVEL

(2) A highly moral character 

Huckleberry Finn is a highly moral character , if their is any morality in the novel. According to one of the scholar ,their is moral growth in Huck through successive 
stages. Like Mark twain ,he too hates the vices of cruelty , brutality , killings , murders and slavery . He has been the upholder of the human values and denounced 
in justice and in equality in the society .Therefore , he cannot bear the slavery of Jim ,he cannot bear the cheating nature of the king and the duke .He shares the money stolen
by the king and the duke in the coffin of the dead relative of the sisters.He escape from the society which is corrupt in his opinion.

NOTES ON HUCKLEBERRY FINN FORM AND STYLE

(3) His kindness 

Huck's heart overflows with the mind of human kindness. He feels compassion for Jim a victim of the society , he helps the people in the hours of their need . He is 
fond of simple and innocent being and things ,he is so sensitive that he cannot withdraw himself from the sufferings of others .

(4) His desire for loneliness

According to Richard Poirier ,Huck has an aptitude for loneliness . He does not like to live in society He does not like to join Tom's gang.He run away from the house
of his brutal father Pap .He runs away from Miss Watson who wants to civilize him. In his introduction to the novel T.S ELIOT says that Huck is his most solitary 
character in fiction . 


(5) His knowledge of mankind and nature 

Huck has super knowledge of the civil nature of human beings . He moves with the assumption that his fellow men are likely to be dangerous and wicked . He moves to society 
in disguised . He adopts a false identity . He knows well how to  get rid of slave traders and hunters with the lie that his family is sick his knowledge of mankind 
thus helps him to be away from evil people . It also enables him to feel sympathy for the suffering fellows .

NOTES ON THEME OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN

(6)  His believes in Ghosts

Jim believes in ghosts and like him Huck too believe in ghosts . His faith in ghosts is not only childish fantasy but rejection of deeper problem of his desire for freedom
from the taints of civilization . Their is something mysterious and tragic in his belief that the sound in the woods has been produced by the ghost . Along with Tom he makes any superstitious efforts to release him from the cell in which he was chained .

(7) His Goodness

Huck is all compassion all goodness and all righteousness . He cannot stand cruelity in any form .He feels sympathy when they are in difficulty . When he and Jim cut loose the boat of the cut  throats on the Walterscott and sail it away leaving them to the mercy of the river , Huck fells upset about their security . He then tries to arrange for their rescue.

CONCLUSION

Perhaps, the most remarkable quality of Huck's character is that he succeeds in being a boy and a grown up person at once .He really represent the varied life of America.
He has some  universal values . He should be taken as a champion of an freedom. Thus , Huck plays an important role in the Novel. 



  

Wednesday, 4 September 2019




Q] Discuss the theme of Huckleberry Finn ?
or Theme of Racism in Huckleberry Finn



THEME OF RACISM IN HUCKLEBERRY FINN

The adventure of Huckleberry Finn, published in January 1885 , has been severely criticized for its racist content ,Though commented by Earnest Hemingway as "one book" from which "
all modern American literature" came for Twain's critics , the novel is steeped in racism . The repeated use of the word "Nigger" contributes largely to this assessment
written at a time when slavery had been abolished but prejudice against black had not. The novel is Twain attempt to expose the ruthlessness of society towards the Afro-American
of the day . It is the story of a "white boy",Huck , trying to save a runaway nigger from captivity .


Theme of Racism in novel Huckleberry Finn notes ,theme of Huckleberry Finn notes

HUCKLEBERRY FINN THEME ,OF RACISM


Twain has steered the readers attention from a tale of plain "Boyish Adventure"
to a more serious moral content .on the surface of it . The novel is bursting with characters that propagate racism . Early in the novel , we have rendezvous with Tom's racist attitude . When he and Huck are trying to escape in the wood , Tom wants to play a trick on the sleeping Jim. He ties him into a tree and demonstrate his complete lack of sensitivity towards the letters's feelings .

 Tom has an inherent thoughtlessness towards members of the black race ,a fact that becomes evident, again at the end of of the novel with his announcement that Jim has been "a free man" for two months , However , Tom upbringing has taught him that a 'NIGGER' being inferior to the "white man "does not deserve respect and consideration and therefore , it is right to disregard his sentiment because he does not have any . Through the character of Tom , Mark Twain is trying to exhibit and satirize the foolishness and outlook of the "civilized" their bookish learning and tendency towards Racism .

READ HUCKLEBERRY FINN AS A PICARESQUE NOVEL

THEME OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN


The "God fearing" and "Religious" lot like Miss Watson and the Phelps are also not force from this streak of racial prejudice . While Miss Watson preaches to Huck that he should believe in providence and do good to others , she does not find anything wrong in her decision to sell her slave to a trader and eventually , separate him from his family for ever and ever she does not recognize the fact that a 'NIGGER"  as long as no "people" were hurt in the boat explosion . Her belief in this content is extremely impolite and racist especially when she responds its lucky because sometimes people do get hurt ". After all their upbringing has taught them that black people don't count as people , and it doesn't matter if they get hurt. Even the drunken , uneducated and unemployed POP'S representing the lower class of white southern society shows , his racist inclination it is preposterously
how a useless and vagrant's white man can claim him superiority over well-educated "nigger" merely on racial grounds,through POP'S strong racist sentiment .

GET NOTES FORM AND STYLE OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN

 Twain seeks to reveal his disgust at the irrationality of peoples hatred  towards those belonging to the black community . Even Huck is not free from the racist sentiment . In the beginning
, Huck like Tom disregard Jim's sentiment and plays several pranks , including the "rattle-snakes" on him. Huck is surprised at Jim's display of emotion when he fondly talks of his, family and daughter .Influenced by the racism that he has inherited from society , Huck has also been taught that a black man is not capable of such a degree of emotion.

Huck's upbringing and exposure has taught him the ridiculous idea that a "Nigger" is inferior to a "WHITE MAN',not only in status but also in emotion and feeling . Twain
shows his contempt for the corrupting and demoralizing weight that southern civilized society has a Huck. The novelist displays his disdain from slavery through a character that has "LEARNT HIS LESSONS" and that character is Huck.After playing all those practical jokes on Jim's,he realized that slaves have feeling too,they also want to be with their family.

during his journey down the Mississippi with Jim , Huck goes through emotional maturity , His attitude shows changing . He lets his own experience and judgement decide his course of action and does not succumb to what society claims to be 'right or wrong' in the scene where the slave trade catch up with raft , they ask".

"is your man white or black" , after a great tug of war with the teaching of society , finally Huck burst out " He's white ", this statement is a great milestone in Huck's character.
it is therefore high time that absolve "Mark Twain". of the change of being a racist writer and acknowledge his real purpose , with the portrayal of racially prejudiced
characters , Twain drives home his contempt for the unfounded and groundless prejudice of the "whites" against the less Privileged "blacks" as Twain wrote -

There are many humorous things in the world ;among them in the white man's nation that he is less savage than all other savages.       





   

Monday, 26 August 2019

Concept of Transcendentalism


Transcendentalism was a movement for reform once complete spiritual freedom and in essence it was a reaction against the pan European system of thought, which was commonly known as the enlightenment. In a way transcendentalism can be regarded as the westward extension of that great movement called romanticism . 

Ralph Waldo Emerson as a transcendatlist , Meaning and concept of Transcendentalism

      Concept of Transcendentalism





Transcendentalism basically relies on instinct and conscience. It is a form of idealism , a philosophical romanticism that arrived in America after a generation or two of its development in Europe. On the continent it was conceived and nurtured on the doctrines of European philosophy and was chiefly Popularised in America by Emerson after he had absorbed it's idea for German and British , Romantics like Goethe , Kent , Coleridge and others . However , transcendentalist as a philosophy in America acquired a special significance. It gradually come to dominate the New England authors in America to such an extent that it become a literary as well as a philosophical movement .


The genesis of transcendentalism in Europe can be located. to the idea of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, whose rejection of the enlightenment ideas that all knowledge and concept depend matter and sense was made in the critique of pure reason . The materialistic theory of the 18th century being questioned subjected everything to do not including god and human soul . The 19th century idealist in Europe opposed such a vein of man of the universe by proposing that the human mind has an innate knowledge of its own which is independent of its sense of the material world . It is believed in certain innate ideas like that of right or wrong , good and evil , god , duty , freedom , immortality etc. Such ideas or knowledge was supposed to exist in the soul as a part of its being and they transcend or go beyond experience. It was Kant in his critique of pure reason, who first made use of the word "Transcendentalism" Kant proceeded from the bales of limitation of the powers of human reasons suggesting that it was restricted in apprehending the great gliding principles like god , freedom , and immorality. In other words there is a need of the transcendentalist knowledge. Which could be supplied through an affinity kinship with the encompassing universe . This communion was achieved partly through contact other nature and partly through listening to the dictates of instinct and inner light .

The movement of transcendentalism derived from Germany and England with an infusion of oriented philosophy found it most significant development in America. The movement gained its impetus from meeting of small groups that came together to discuss new ideas . The group seemed to agree that within the nature of human beings these was something that transcend human experience. These movements also sponsored two important activities ,one was the publication of the Dial (1840-1844) which become the literary organ of disseminating the idea of transcendentalist philosophy. The second activity was in the form of starting Brook from which was an experiment in living close imposition of society and civilization .

READ LANGUAGE FEATURES 
AND   LANGUAGE CHANGE


It was with the publication of Emerson nature , a seminal essay discussing the new idea , that the movement of American transcendentalism began to take shape . Initially it was confined largely to the new England and more narrowly to the vicinity of Boston and Concord involving a small group of people. This philosophy gradually moved westward and then south till it had influenced a large part of the country. The members of the Boston group consisted of prominent names in literature like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thoreau, James Freeman , clerk Margret , the mystic poet .


Like the earlier idealism of the puritan in America , transcendentalism also aimed to make man morally upright first and when to make him free in mind as well as in body . Transcendentalism believed in living close to nature and accept the dignity of manual labourers. They strongly felt the need of intellectual companionship and emphasized spiritual living . It was believed that every individual relation to God could be established directly by the person himself rather than through a ritualistic church .

The transcendentalist need that human beings are divine in their own right but it was an opinion that was opposed to the doctrine of puritan Calvinist in New England. For the transcendentalist self trust and self reliance were important virtues to be practised at all times because self trust was actually a trust on the voice of God which speaks intuitively within man .


Ralph Waldo Emerson as a transcendentalist

Ralph Waldo Emerson as a transcendatlist , Meaning and concept of Transcendentalism


Ralph Waldo Emerson as a transcendentalist

                                             
Nineteenth century American poetry is notable for its inclination, towards the continental romanticism. This intellectual movement was reworked and refashioned in America particularly by a group of people associated with literature, politics , philosophy and other areas . These leading thinkers come to be known as the transcendentalist. The leader of this  intellectual movement was Ralph Waldo Emerson, and original thinker , philosopher , orator , poet , and author . His satire as the leading transcendentalist made him known throughout the nation as " The Sage of Concord " . Emerson writings are filled with acute observations of contemporary men and institutions and they provide insight into human psychology. Emerson has been a critic of American life and his heir have always been incisive and profound.


Emerson works include journals which , contain information early significant writings . They constitute a complete development of his attitude and views of life . The most important thing in these journals is Nature  , in which he expresses dentalism , these essays also contain the germ of later works like oversoul . The American scholar and the divinity school address . The last mentioned work is particularly important because in it Emerson expresses his dissatisfaction with organised religion and his preference his dissatisfaction with organised religion and his preference for the religion of the soul . It is fascinating because Emerson had trained himself to be a clerk but later chosen to give up preaching this gospel , According to the church . By rejecting the church , Emerson also declares his rejection and disregard for all types of authority and preferring the freedom of the individual spirit .

These ideals found expression in the essays . First series (1841) , which consisted of essays like "Self reliance" , "Over Soul" , "Compensation" , "Spiritual laws " , "Love" , "Friendship" , and "History". In all these essays Emerson, expresses his concern with transcendentalism and exposed the various dimensions associated with it . For Emerson and others , transcendentalism is not merely a theory but a practical philosophy which should guide and mould an individual's attitude to life .


The representative men is an important work which not only develops the idea further but also illustrates his concept of greatness.  Emerson through a study of Six men - Plato , the philosopher, Sweden boury the mystic , Montaigne the Skeptic , Shakespeare the poet , Napoleon the man of the word , and Geothe , the writer - undertakes the evolution of greatness . According to him the greatest man of all was Plato because he was both a philosopher and a poet . A great man has more divinity in him and thus he conveys to mankind a sense of his own potentialities ,this line of approach associating greatness to prophet and poet agrees with the Roman concept of the "Vates" therefore for Emerson, a great poet is also a great seas , one through which certain truths of nature and life are revealed.


Emerson used these as his preferred medium to explore and propagate his ideas . As a puritan and transcendentalist, he surrounded himself to this task of intellectual exploration. He was an individualist who believed in the reform of the individual itself and he didn't have much faith in institution reforms . As a poet Emerson was profoundly influenced by the concept of selfhood which gathered from his studies of the Hindu scriptures. He was well aware of the laws of Manu , Vishnupuran , the Bhagavad Gita , and the Upanishads. Emerson's poetry echoes the Vedanta philosophy in its forms as well as content. One of his often quote points "Brahma" the distinct influence of Katha , the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita .


Emerson poems were collected in two volumes entitled poem (1897) , many day and other poems (1876) , some of his famous poems are - The rhodora , Each and all , the problem , the show storm and earth song . It has been mentioned for Emerson, religion was poetry and as a poet his only pleasure was thought, he allowed his deeper impersonal spirit to range over history and nature gathering ideas and knowledge and presenting them as inspired poems . The main themes of his poetry are nature , patriotism , personal or domestic life and reflected philosophy.



Sunday, 25 August 2019

ADVENTURE OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN BY MARK TWAIN


Q). Form and style in Huckleberry Finn? 

Q). Write a brief note on the plot and structure of the novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn?

Or 

Analyse the plot and structure of the adventures of Huckleberry Finn?


HUCKLEBERRY FINN FORM AND STYLE / WRITING STYLE

Huckleberry Finn novel form and style , plot and structure notes

Huckleberry Finn novel form and style 
                                                 



The structure of the adventures of Huckleberry Finn has caused a strange confusion both among Mark Twain's admirers and his critics like Lionel Trilling says - "The form of the book is based on the simplest of all novel forms , the so called picaresque novel or novel of road which strings it's incidents on the lie of the heroes travels . Some other critics also praised the form of the novel in the work full of meanings but critics like Frank Bablanza found faults with the structure of the novel . In Spite,  of its structure the buffing quality of the plot of the novel doesn't discourage us to make an attempt to understand the rich experience organised into a cohesive pattern and unity .


Huckleberry Finn novel form and style , plot and structure notes

HUCKLEBERRY FINN PLOT AND STRUCTURE NOTES
                         



(1)The peculiarities of the plot

The structure of the novel has many peculiarities this can be studied as follows - 

(A) The role of the river 

The river plays an important role in the novel , the river has a lion's part . Trilling and Eliot are of the opinion that is the river which provides form to the novel . The river also gives unity to the novel. Huck grows from adolescence to maturity on the raft.  Indeed , the river is the backbone of the novel . It also adds to realism in the novel. 

(B) Typical Division 

The second noteworthy peculiarity of the plot of the novel is that it is cleverly organised . The plot can be divided into three parts . The first part covers the first 16 chapters . It depicts Jim's fight from slavery and also Hucks fights from the corrupting influence of Miss Watson and his father. The Second part continues upto 33rd chapter , which depicts Huck ; entry into the green genfords , the swindling of the king and the Duke and their moral degradation. The third part of the plot starts with Tom Sawyer return to Phelp's farm and the happy ending.

(C) Episodic plot 

Being a picaresque Novel, Huckleberry Finn has an episodic plot . There are many episodes in the novel . It is vast like an epic . The adventures and misadventures of the child hero , Huck are depicted. Thus , the plot is episodes or incidents are tagged to escape of Huck and Jim on the Jackson, a result,we do not get a plot structure here as we get in the novels of Thomas hardes in fact , Huck  is the first person narrator and his journey is the liking factor in it .

(D) Realism 

Though loose the plot of the novel is realistic we feel that such , incidence can take place around us in the society Huck and Jim are common persons , their experiences are common experience for those people who live in the sea or in the forest like areas , thus most of incidents too seem to be true , similarly the novel has autobiographical touches and so the adds to the realism in the novel like a picaresque Novel, Huckleberry Finn is realistic in its presentation. The use of dialect and satire also show the realistic nature of the plot , the novel is the story of children , slaves and the elders . Such men and women and children are such seas around us . In the same way as compared to Tom-Huck he is more real .

(E) Symbolism 

The novel is full of symbols . A famous critic Laurita lane has treated the novel as an allegory . So the novel has Symbolism. The journey of Huck is symbolic. It stands for the journey of the soul of the body . According to some critics ,the half hackedness of Jim and Huck stands for their quest for the word spirit . According to T.S Eliot and Lionel Tripping, the river stands for a distinct American literature. Huck also stands for a free boy , who lives freely from the modern civilized world thus , the symbolism in the novel gives it an additional weight and appeal .

(F) Unity of characters, themes , and unity 

There is a perfect unity between the theme and the characters in the novel . The characters are put at right place in the novel . The story of a child and a negro undergo adventures on the sea like big river, the Mississippi . The theme of the novel is compassion coming in the wake of cruelties practised by people in the novel . This is the major theme , the other minor themes are such as that of parenthood, the search for identity and desire for education etc . All these themes are knit together like threads in order to weaken the texture of the story 
(G) Romance and fantasy 

As the novel is a picaresque Novel,it contains romance and fantasy, Tom stands for the romantic plans in the story , the incidents like erecting the robbers gang and rescuing Jim from slavery and romantic. The satire in the novel also is mostly romantic .

(H) Loose and Cyclical structure 

The novel has loose and Cyclical structure. It begins in the domestic matriarchal environment of St. Petersburg and ends in an exactly similar Milieu on Phelps farm in Arkansas, the random sequence turns out to be the structural principle of the whole novel being a picaresque novel , the plot is loose and Cyclical.

(I) Rhythmic structure 

Rhythm forms an important principles of structure in the adventures of Huckleberry Finn , almost the entire novel is structured on the aesthetic principle repetition and variations . For instance, the reference of the blanket is repeated in the scene of Huck in his father's hut and than in the scene when Jim's escape is managed through as a whole E.M forster , in this regard remarks that it is the variation that gives a sense of surprise. The novel is full of such factors . 

(J) Humour and Satire 

The novel is full of humour and Satire , most of the characters in the novel are almost a caricature. The tricks of Tom as a ringmaster of the Mischievous boys are quite romantic and humour. He forms his own gang of robbers. His efforts of providing or show his murders are very humorous . He is looked as one of the rooms of the wooden house , he adjust to come out and kills a dog , sprinkle blood on the ground, puts the dog in a sack and drags in up to the river. His father and others think that he was killed by some animals or persons and his dead body is thrown into the river . Jim is too much humorous. His belief in superstitious make him a comic nigger. The style and dialect of Twain add to the humour in the novel .

Huckleberry Finn is a seating satire on all kinds of institutionalism . No part of the contemporary society is spared by the author the chief figures through when he operates his satire are Huck , Jim and Tom. It seems that the authors main target for his satire is the institution of slavery he has also attacked the white community of his times . He also satirizes the religious value , which has become just formal in those days . He has expressed sarcastic views on the government and the law system .


Conclusion
Thus ,the adventure of Huckleberry Finn has typical structure which is suitable for picaresque novel . The form of the novel is most native to Mark Twain and so best adopted to his use .