Friday 15 February 2019

Jane Austen Emma- Wiki Short Biography,Novels,Works-Historical context-Mansfield Park Summary 1999


Jane Austen Wiki Short Biography,Novels,Works-Historical context of Mansfield Park,Short Summary of Mansfield Park-Miss Jane Austen kept no diary or journals she was not a public figure, whose exploits would regularly appear in newspapers or other historical records. What we know of Jane's life comes chiefly from the many letters she exchanged with Cassandra her older sister in closest companion.

Austen spent almost all of her life in the small social circle of her family and her village in the quiet English countryside how then do we explain how her novels show such rare insight into the complexities of human nature. Austen was able to compose incisive social commentary through her keen observations it took a special kind of genius.

Jane Austen wiki,short biography,novels,works Historical context and short summary of Mansfield park


Jane Austen,one of eight children was born in 1775 in Steventon, a small village in Hampshire, England. Jane's parents were both from well-respected families part of the landed gentry the Austen's did not lead extravagant lives however, Jane's father was a rector of the church in Steventon as well as a private tutor his efforts provided a small income enough for the Austen family to live comfortably and to send some of their children to school.

When Jane was seven she and her sister Cassandra were sent to live with a relative who was a private tutor but both girls fell ill with typhoid. Jane almost died this early brush with death may have affected Jane's health for the rest of her life but cassandra is thought to have destroyed most of the letters mentioning details of Jane's health.

In 1785 Jane and Cassandra attempted another brief stint at formal education at a boarding school where young ladies were taught suitable subjects such as drawing, needlework and French.

But by 1786 the girls returned home for lack of funds fortunately Jane's family had an extensive library and Jane was an avid reader Jane's education was now in her own hands and she read widely from her family's library. Her father and older brothers encouraged her and Jane was never without paper for writing and an eager audience for her juvenilia written from 1787 to 1792. Early attempts at writing place poems and even short novels while still on her teens one of these works is an epistolary novel a story told in letters called love and friendship which hints at some of the scenarios to come in her later novels.

Another of her earliest works is a witty retelling of the history of England complete with watercolor illustrations provided by her sister Cassandra between 1795 and 1799. When Jane Austen was in her early 20's she began work on three of her full-length novels first impressions which would later become known as Pride and Prejudice, Elinor and Marianne, later renamed Sense and Sensibility, and Susan, which was later titled North hangar Abbey.

Jane's father brought the early Pride and Prejudice manuscript to a publisher who refused to even look at it in the year 1800 .
Jane Austen's life changed unexpectedly her father decided to retire from his position as church rector and the family moved to Bath an elegant resort town where as Austen observed in her novel persuasion a family of reduced circumstances could live comparatively will and still go out into society.

While Jane was previously known to enjoy going to parties and balls the move to Bath Center into a depression Austen wrote little while in Bath's although she did sell Northangar Abbey for the princely sum of ten pounds, inexplicably the publisher chose to not printed. 

Austen circumstances were further reduced upon the sudden death of Jane's father in 1805 the pension he was receiving from the church promptly seized and Jane became dependent on her brothers for a place to live. 

Jane her mother and her sister Cassandra came to reside once more in Hampshire in a small village close to her childhood home, years later Jane would recount the series of events with the phrase what happy feelings of escape freed from the oppressive influence of Bath Society.

Jane once more began to write in earnest the next several years were the most productive of Austin's life after revising Sense and Sensibility. Austen found a publisher to take it on the first edition appeared in 1811, not under Jane's own name but by a lady.

The first edition the novel sold out earning in a hundred 40 pounds. in some much-needed financial stability, Jane took this as a good sign and revised Pride and Prejudice as well and it was published in 1813. Next came Mansfield Park published in 1814, then Emma in 1815 her last complete novel persuasion was finished in 1816. But ill-health had descended once more upon Miss Austen we can only speculate on Jane Austen's final illness there are signs that could have been complications from her early with typhoid, where it might have been Addison's disease or lymphoma coupled with a long-standing immune deficiency.

Whatever the ailment it was beyond the reach of medical help Jane Austen died on July 18 1817, at the age of 41. She was buried in Winchester Cathedral where her memorial recognized the benevolence of her heart, the sweetness of her temper and the extraordinary endowments of her mind. Only after her death was it made publicly known that Jane was the author of four well-known novels. Jane Austen's obituary named her as the author of Emma Mansfield Park, Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility. Northangar Abbey and persuasion would be published after Jane's death - a brief shameful interlude when her novels fell out of print for 12 years they have been published continuously ever since.

Jane Austen Wiki Short Biography,Novels,Works-Historical context of Mansfield Park,Short Summary of Mansfield Park.


Jane Austen wiki,short biography,novels,works Historical context and short summary of Mansfield park


We all know Jane Austen is a 19th century novelist who wrote the beautiful and infamous Pride and Prejudice.

But what makes Jane Austen so riveting?
Perhaps her third novel Mansfield Park which is claimed to be Austen's most controversial novel,
What makes Mansfield Park so controversial?
Well how about taking on themes such as colonialism, imperialism and slavery in England.

Let's take a deeper look into the social history of Mansfield Park to better understand the historical context of Mansfield Park, we must first understand what colonialism and imperialism are-

Colonialism in its simplest form is taking control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country territory or people for example the British Empire's colonization of the Americans, the emergence of the American colonies forced a larger demand for resources to be spread across the British Empire resulting in increased slave trade primary reasons.

Why sutlers came to the American colonies?

Were in search of religious freedom economic prosperity to avoid prison time for debt and enslavement. It is estimated that six to seven million Africans were transported to the American colonies in the 18th century.
Whereas imperialism is a policy or practice by which a country increases its power by gaining control over other areas of the world the British Empire used imperialism to control West Africa and the Caribbean islands which aided in the success of slave trading ,sugar plantations and growth of the British Empire.

We see modern imperialism from American control over Puerto Rico Parliament enforced imperialism.

What is Parliament ?

Well Parliament is the governing body of the British Empire. Parliament contains three branches such as the crown, The House of Lords and the House of Commons. The crown is a monarchy the House of Lords makes sure that government is being challenged while making the laws where the House of Commons elects the members of parliament now that we've identified a couple of key terms.

Let's establish our timeline we start in 1643 which was the year the earliest document relating to Africa was found in the parliamentary archives in 1698. The Royal Africa company a mercantile company lost their monopoly which opened up opportunities for private traders in that same year. Copper miners petitioned the trade with Africa bill, which would implement more regulations something the miners thought would damage their industry in 1760, the tenacious abolitionist. Thomas Clarke is born in 1775 on December 16th ,Jane Austen was born in 1787 Thomas Clarkson forms abolition campaign in 1788 due to the influx of petitions.

Parliament investigates the slave trade in 1806 a parliamentary debate is held for the abolition of the slave trade on page 406 in the Norton critical Edition.

We can see the arguments for abolition and against abolition let's take these next few passages for example Sir Ralph Milbank rose to second the motion he should always he said endeavour to suppress the trade, so unjust and so degrading to humanity and he wished it to be remembered that he had on every occasion given his vote for the abolition of it he had been uniformly of opinion that the slave trade was a ruinous and destructive traffic that it was contrary to every principle of sound policy justice and humanity as had been stated by the right secretary in much more able manner. Than he could do he was happy to say that the majority of his constituents concurred with him in these sentiments he was persuaded that the cultivation of the colonies could be very well carried on without any fresh importation of slaves and concluded by second emotion.

General tarlata felt it his duty to call their attention to the situation of Liverpool a town which from a miserable fishing hamlet of about 150 huts had within a century risen to be the second town in point of commercial wealth and consequence and the British dominions entirely by the African trade it was eminent for the prosperity of its commerce its wealth its loyalty for the important aid it furnished to the British marine by affording at all times a numerous supply of seamen, through its African and West Indian trade in 1807. 

The slave trade was abolished in 1808 Thomas Clarkson publishes history of the rise progress and accomplishment of the abolition of the African slave trade.

Jane Austen most likely read this publication as she professed herself as being in love with him we can find the passage on page 4 -10 of Norton critical Edition, with respect to the end obtained by this context or the great measure of the abolition of the slave trade as it has now passed I know not how to appreciate its importance to our own country indeed it is invaluable we have lived in consequence of it to see the day when it has been recorded as a principle.

And our legislation that Commerce itself shall have its moral boundaries we have lived to see the day when we are likely to be delivered from the contagion of the most barbarous opinions they who supported this wicked traffic virtually denied that man was a moral being they substituted.

The law of force for the law of reason but the great act now under our consideration has banished the impious doctrine and restored the rational creature to his moral rights nor is it a matter of less pleasing consideration that at this awful crisis when the Constitution's of kingdoms are on the point of disillusion the stain of the blood of Africa is no longer upon us or that we have been freed alas.

if it not be too late from a load of guilt which has long hung like a millstone about our necks ready to sink us to perdition in 1813. The first edition of Mansfield Park is published by Thomas egerton in 1833. Parliament passes the act for the abolition of slavery throughout the British colonies let's summarize the Novel Mansfield Park.

Jane Austen Wiki Short Biography,Novels,Works-Historical context of Mansfield Park,Short Summary of Mansfield Park.


Jane Austen the novelist of the Romantic era wrote almost six novels. Mansfield Park was originally published in 1814 , Austen's novels focus on themes of courtship and marriage.
Mansfield Park was even a more socially aware novel the theme dealing with the three different layers of society, centers on the issue of morality, the duty of parents to shape their children's morale, and their spiritual development. It's also reflects importance of Holmes nature of good education above all unshakeable conscience of the heroine.

The story of Mansfield Park is of three sisters married off in different sections of society,the eldest married to wealthy Sir Thomas Bertram and known as Lady Bertram.

The middle sister is married to a clergyman Mr. Norris,

And the youngest in a poor family Leftenant Price.

Bertram family has four kids Tom, Edmund,Maria and Julia.

Mr. and Mrs. Norris had no children and Mr. and Mrs. price had many children they were so poor they were unable to care for their children with proper education.

Lady Bertram wants to help her poor sister so Fanny the eldest comes to stay with the Bertram family the sisters Maria and Julia are not happy to welcome Fanny.

Edmund welcomes Fanny as a little sister and helps her to adjust, after some time Mr. Norris dies Mrs. Norris comes to stay in Mansfield Park with the Bertram's and grooms the girls.

Noris's family is replaced by Dr. and Mrs. grant Sir Thomas with his eldest son Tom leave for Antigua in Africa Mrs. grants step brother and sister come to live with them.

Maria and Julia are very happy to meet the Crawfords, Henry is attracted to Maria
Mary starts taking interest in Edmund,Fanny takes care of Lady Bertram in absence of Sir Thomas.

Maria gets engaged to Mr. Rushworth although she doesn't like him she and Henry flirt a lot whereas Mary flirts with Edmund, Fanny develops silent liking for Edmund.

When Sir Thomas is away Miss Yeates ,Julia's friend suggests to do a play lovers vows Mary and Edmund and Henry and Maria practice together, Fanny is sad and Rushworth is shocked.
When all of them were practicing the play, Sir Thomas Bertram comes abruptly and the play stands cancelled, Fanny is now relaxed because she was not in favour of doing the play.

Edmund wants to be a clergyman Mary dislikes this profession they are mismatched where thoughts are concerned Fanny's secret attraction towards Edmund grows day by day, Maria cannot retain her friendship to Henry as she is engaged to Rushworth, Fanny is disappointed to see Edmund being close to Mary whereas Mary is selfish and uncaring.

Henry then gets attracted to Fanny tries to flirt with her proposes her, Fanny does not accept his proposal at all Bertram's are happy to know that Henry wants to marry fanny, they try to convince Fanny but fail in doing so then Sir Bertram sends Fanny back home in order to make her realize and amend her decision.
Fany reunites with her family she is happy to see her brother join Navy and her sister Susan, a young girl. She finds the two families Bertram and price so different Henry after being rejected by Fanny comes back to Maria who is now a married lady.

Maria broke her marriage with Rushworth and eloped with Henry bringing shame to both families.

Julia in frustration elopes with Mr. Yates thus the Bertram girls bring shame to the family whereas Fanny proves the value of moral education when Mary fails to convince Edmund she leaves him she never wants him to be a clergyman Edmunds tries to beat her but she goes away leaving him depressed.

Fanny tried to console Edmund her love for Edmund is now revealed Edmund now understood the difference between fanny and Mary, Fanny was more like-minded.

Henry leaves the disgraced Maria her alliance with Rushworth is broken Julia was also called back they now live with Mrs.Norris away from the family.

Bertram's married Edmund and Fanny and ultimately Fanny's love got reciprocated her younger sister Susan came as an aid to Lady Bertram and everyone loved Tapley thereafter.


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