Sunday, 8 July 2018

The Renaissance period-Revival of Learning notes In English Literature|Renaissance Humanism notes|Renaissance in Italy

 Revival of learning|Renaissance Humanism|History|Origin|Literature                   ( From 1400-1550)




Renaissance Humanism Revival of learning
Revival of Learning|Renaissance Humanism



   Historical background|Revival of  learning



The literary decline that followed the death of Chaucer was due inconsiderable in measure to Political causes .The dispute in regard to the throne,which culminated in the wars of the roses(1455-1485) distracted the country ,wasted its energy and finally destroyed in large measure the noble families on whose patronage early Literature and art were dependent.The accession of Henry Vll in 1485 brought about a period of quite a recovery. As its power increased,the country resumed it's position in the family of European nations and began through them to feel the stimulus of the movement called the Renaissance.Read  Metaphysical poetry by John Donne


              Revival of learning | Meaning



The revival of learning in its broadest sense means the gradual enlightenment of the human mind after the darkness of the middle ages .The names Renaissance and humanism are applied to the same movement.It is the movement of transition from the middle ages to the modern world.The Renaissance ,as an matter of fact was an European phenomenon in the world of art and literature.Literally ,the term 'Renaissance' signifies 'rebirth' .


It is an intellectual rebirth and refers to that period in the history of Europe which was post medieval.It's an effort of the individual to free himself from the rigid institution of the middle ages, Feudalism and the church ,and to assert him ought to live,to think and to express himself accordance with a more flexible secular tone.As man gained his freedom they felt less inclined to assent to the medieval view that this life should be sacrificed to the future,they turned more and more to the present world,to the problems of gaining mastery in it through wealth or statecraft of discovering it's secrets through exploration and scientific experiment of heightening it's enjoyment through art and literature.Read Beowulf as an epic poem.


One force of immense importance in the Renaissance was the new knowledge of the world of antiquity,which was obtained through the recovery of the writings and works of art of the classical period .The period also saw a new approach to the study of history and the Human sciences.


                Origin | Revival of Learning


Renaissance first originated in Italy in the 14th century and it reached England much later.The English Renaissance can scarcely be said to begin untill the reign of Henry VIII and it didn't came to fully splender until the latter day of Elizabeth.


THERE ARE VARIOUS REASONS FOR WHICH RENAISSANCE FIRST STARTED IN ITALY .



FIRSTLY, Italy was the most advanced and sophisticated of the European urban centres in medieval Europe .The Italian aristocrat participation in bussinees and industry alongside the merchant class made a separation of two people almost impossible.Such an intercourse between the nobility and the merchants worked well to create the Cosmopolitan climate which was so important feature of the Renaissance.





Revival of learning Renaissance Humanism
Revival of learning|Renaissance Humanism



Secondly,Italy was more close to the classic heritage than any other western European centres.The educators looked to the models provided by the ancient Greek and Latin resources for inspirations and consultations .For the Italians the classical example was not only the most relevant but also most accessible.This was


This was not true of the other centres in western Europe as they could not connect to the classical heritage in the way the Italian did.


Thirdly the prosperity of the Italian made it easier for artist and scholars to remain at home and pursue their interest.

       Literature| writers | Revival Of Learning



The first of the Renaissance writers in Italy was Petrarch. A Catholic to the core, Petrarch advocated the cultivation of literary fluency for the perpetuation of the proper intellectual climate .Petrarch limited the Latin models and developed a humanists programme of which has morale treaties serve as example the Florentine humanists Leonardo Bruni and Leon Batista Alberti advocated the concept of civic humanism ,the necessity of being useful to the state.


The emphasis on scholarship in the Renaissance led to the discovery of ancient text which were marshalled to develop the argument for a mode of learning that went beyond medieval scholasticism.


The re emergence of the Greek thinkers was facilitated by the participation of many Byzantine scholars who came to Italy as Greek instructors at the beginning of the 15th century.
Giovanni Aurispa ,for instance came back with 238 manuscripts of writings of the ancient times that included works by Sophocles,Euripides and Thucydides.


Another important break from the medieval scholarship was introduced and activated by Renaissance thinker Lorenzo Valla. He was a rethorician,grammarian and a scholar of language who was deeply interested in the linguistic study of text.The writings of Nicolle Machiavelli,the most important political philospher of the time when lurbulence was consistently characterising contemporary Italian politics.


Some saw Machiavelli as the architect of real politics ,disdainful of moral concerns ,while others visualised him as a true Italian representative,one who knew the pulse of the contemporary world.He wrote two major political works - Discovery on Livy and The Prince.



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